Toma AM, Zhurov A, Playle R, Ong E, Richmond S. Reproducibility of facial soft tissue landmarks on 3D laser- scanned facial images. Orthod Craniofac Res 12:33-42, 2009.
Background – The three-dimensional (3D) measuring technology is useful to inspect facial shape in three planes of space (X, Y, and Z). Recent work has been directed to analyse craniofacial morphology using facial soft tissue landmarks to identify facial differences among population. The reproducibility of facial landmarks is almost necessary to ensure accurate 3D facial measurements.
Objective – The aim of this study is to assess the reproducibility of facial soft tissue landmarks using laser-scan 3D imaging technology.
Subjects and Methods – Facial landmarks were assessed for 30 15½-year-old British-Caucasian children (15 males and 15 females). The sample was recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The 3D facial images were acquired for each subject using two high-resolution Konica ⁄ Minolta laser scanners. Twenty-one facial landmarks (63 X, Y, and Z coordinates) were identiﬁed and recorded on each 3D facial image by two examiners. The reproducibility of landmarks identiﬁcation at 2-week interval was assessed for one of the examiners (intra-examiner). In addition, the reproducibility of landmarks was assessed between the two examiners (inter-examiner). Using Bland-Altman plots, both intra- and inter-examiner assessments had evaluated landmarks reproducibility in three dimensions for the sample divided by gender. The reproducibility of the 3D-coordinates for each landmark was considered under three categories (<0.5 mm, <1 mm, and >1 mm) for both intra- and inter- examiner reproducibility assessments.
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