Category Archives: Craniofacial Growth and Development

Growth Mechanisms and regulation theories : A summary

Summarized by Dr.Hani Alhebshi ..

The aim of this summary is to outline the basic mechanisms and regulation theories  to be as a quick reference of craniofacial growth and development. More details can be found in the bottom of this summary when references are listed.


Craniofacial Mechanisms are devided into 4 components :

  • Growth Mechanisms ( How bone is formed ).
  • Growth Pattern ( change of size and shape of bone).
  • Growth Rate ( Speed at which bone is formed).
  • Regulation Mechanisms that regulate those three factors.


Growth Mehanisms :

Ossification of bone occurs in two ways :

  • Endochondral Ossification : Cartilage transformed into bone.
  • Intramembranous Ossification : Mesenchymal connective tissue is transformed into bone by deposition of bone on existing bone surfaces.

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When does midpalatal suture close ?

Summerized by : Dr.Hani Alhebshi.

When does midpalatal suture close ?

Upon searching the web , I found some useful articles answering this question.

It has been stated that there is quite wide variation among individuals that it ossifies at different age groups.

The amount of ossification increases in the growth spurt ( approximately 12-13 years in females , 14-15 years in males) leading to some obliteration at the suture.

There is evidence of continuous ossification in later ages upto 20s (young adults) and even to later age in other studies reaching 32 years! showing marked degree of closure.

The importance of this point lies in whether we can use rapid palatal expansion in adults or not to achieve an opening in the midpalatal suture.Several papers showed clinical cases that palatal sutures were opened in late teens and early twenties.

The following links are of valuable articles I found useful for our discussion.

Here are some important excerpts from these articles.

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